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"Integrity of Science in the 21st Century"
Expert Opinions

Academic, industrial, and governmental leaders spoke about scientific integrity at Student Pugwash USA's 2006 Midwest conference. Read about these impressive speakers and hear what they had to say below.

Dr. Arden Bement

Dr. Andrew Keller

Dr. Barry Kellman

Dr. Peter Kissinger

Dr. David Sanders

Dr. Kristin Shrader-Frechette

Dr. Brian Rappert

Mr. Scott Wright


Dr. Arden Bement, Director of the
National Science Foundation


At the dawn of the new millennium we in the science and engineering community are faced with a broad array of challenges that could scarcely be imagined twenty years ago. The rapid pace of global innovation, including the speed of scientific discovery will expand exponentially. For one thing there are more runners in the global race. The ubiquitous technology is accelerating th
e speed and scope of change in our society and our disciplines."


Arden L. Bement, Jr., became Director of the National Science Foundation on November 24, 2004. He had been Acting Director since February 22, 2004.

He joined NSF from the National Institute of Standards and Technology, where he had been director since Dec. 7, 2001. As head of NIST, he oversaw an agency with an annual budget of about $773 million and an onsite research and administrative staff of about 3,000, complemented by a NIST-sponsored network of 2,000 locally managed manufacturing and business specialists serving smaller manufacturers across the United States. Prior to his appointment as NIST director, Bement served as the David A. Ross Distinguished Professor of Nuclear Engineering and head of the School of Nuclear Engineering at Purdue University. He has held appointments at Purdue University in the schools of Nuclear Engineering, Materials Engineering, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, as well as a courtesy appointment in the Krannert School of Management. He was director of the Midwest Superconductivity Consortium and the Consortium for the Intelligent Management of the Electrical Power Grid.

Read a transcript of Dr. Bement's talk!

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Dr. Andrew Keller, Professor, Ohio State University


Political decisions toward science and technology and health and environmental policy involve balancing a lot of very complex criteria and even perfect science—even if science could definitively say what the reality was— … would not be enough to make policy, and when we try to put that burden on science we actually take away from its ability to contribute effectively to policy.


Professor Keeler teaches and does research in the field of environmental and natural resources economics and policy. He has served as the Senior Staff Economist for Environment at the President’s Council of Economic Advisers (2000 – 2001), as a senior economist at the Environmental Protection Agency’s Innovative Strategies and Economics Group (1999-2000) and as an Economist for the Republic of Tanzania’s Marketing Development Bureau (1982-1985). Professor Keeler has published in a variety of journals including Contemporary Economic Policy, Environmental and Resource Economics, The Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, The Journal of Public Economics, and the Journal of Regulatory Economics. Professor Keeler received a Ph.D. in Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Berkeley.

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Dr. Barry Kellman, Director of the Weapons Control Program, DePaul University


Barry Kellman teaches international law and is Director of the International Weapons Control Center at the DePaul University College of Law. He received his B.A. from the University of Chicago and his J.D. from Yale Law School. He Chairs the ABA Committee on International Security of the Section on International Law and serves as Special Advisor to the Interpol Program on Prevention of Bio-Crimes.

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Dr. Pete Kissinger, Professor of Analytical Chemistry, Purdue University


Life science businesses pursuing novel therapies have multiple ethical considerations that generally wrap around four interests—1. the FDA words ‘safe and effective’, 2. an investor’s desire for financial return, 3. scientists’ desire for recognition and research funding, and 4. patients’ desire for treatment.


Professor Kissinger is a part time faculty member and entrepreneur who founded the drug development company Bioanalytical Systems, Inc. He regularly counsels students on career opportunities in the pharmaceutical industry and is active in the Indiana Instrumentation Institute (III) and development of the Purdue Research Park.

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Dr. David Sanders, Professor of Biology, Purdue University


What do I say to the public about biological weapons? You have to take a very careful path between panicking people and on the other hand reassuring them that there is no issue.

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Dr. Kristin Shrader-Frechette, O'Neil Family Professor, Notre Dame


Private interest science is not science; it’s science that is misused. 90% of the [scientists on the panel to evaluate Vioxx], mainly academics, had consulting, contractual, or financial ties with the maker of Vioxx, Merck, and they voted to keep it on the market. If only the scientists without these private ties had voted then Vioxx would have been pulled off the market. This sort of thing happens often.


Kristin Shrader-Frechette studied physics at Xavier University and then graduated, summa cum laude, in 1967,with an undergraduate major in mathematics from Edgecliff College. In 1972, she received her Ph.D. in philosophy from the University of Notre Dame. Shrader-Frechette also did postdoctoral work for 2, 1, and 2 years,respectively, in biology (community ecology), economics, and hydrogeology. She has held Woodrow Wilson Foundation, National Science Foundation, and Carnegie Foundation Fellowships in philosophy of science and has held offices/served on committees in the American Philosophical Association, the Philosophy of ScienceAssociation, the Society for Philosophy and Technology, the Risk Assessment and Policy Association, the International Society for Environmental Ethics, and the US National Academy of Sciences. She has been a member of many boards and committees of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurement and of the National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences, including its Board on Environmental Studies and
Toxicology, its Committee on Risk Characterization, and its Committee on Zinc-Cadmium-Sulfide Dispersions.

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Read a transcript of Dr. Shrader-Frechette's Talk

Articles: Mortgaging the Future: Dumping Ethics With Nuclear Waste

Radiobiology and Gray Science: Flaws in Landmark New Radiation Protections


Dr. Brian Rappert, Professor, University of Exeter


Dr. Rappert's research examines the social, political, moral and technical aspects of the use of force by military and police organisations. The central substantive concerns herein are two-fold, to examine: how claims about the acceptability of the use of force are justified and how notions of what constitutes responsible conduct with the force are negotiated. Considering how public commentators attempt to justify contentions about what constitutes ‘acceptable force’ has led Rappert to more theoretical questions about the basis of knowledge claims and the politics of representation.

Article: Towards a Life Sciences Code: Countering Threats from Biological Weapons (.pdf)


Mr. Scott Wright, Manager of Business Development, Proliance Energy, Founder of Purdue Student Pugwash


Engineering and science, I have found and the empirical evidence shows, is shaping and informing and influencing public policy. It’s very effective at doing that…but don’t get overzealous; it will never be defined by it, and if you’re hoping that you elegant technical solution will somehow find its way into some policy somewhere you’re going to be let down every time.


Scott Wright is the Manager of Business Development for ProLiance Energy, one of the largest natural gas marketing and services companies in the Midwest with customers in 16 states and headquarters in Indianapolis. In his role, Wright leads the company’s efforts in developing and acquiring strategic energy assets and companies. Wright is also involved in corporate development and facilitates the company’s strategic planning process. Wright has 15 years of experience in the energy industry with prior work in federal and state energy policy, renewable energy, energy efficiency, stationary and mobile source emissions modeling, marketing, and economic analysis. Prior employers include the energy practice of A.T. Kearney Management Consulting, the National Renewable Energy Lab, Pacific Gas & Electric, the Harvard Energy Policy Group, and the MIT Energy Lab. Wright obtained a BS in Mechanical Engineering from Purdue University while also participating in a co-op program at the NASA Johnson Space Center. Wright has a M.S. in Technology and Policy from MIT.

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